This bibliography section includes academic, college-level source material. It may be used by high school instructors as supplemental reading or assigned in college classes. These sources are not necessarily recommended for high school students. The links page has popular press and internet sources that may be more appropriate reading for high school students. The bibliography is divided into three types of resources:

  • Online texts selected and organized by topic as useful supplementary reading materials for teachers and/or students
  • Existing online bibliographies that cover issues related to media, cultural studies, and identity
  • Edited collections on media and cultural studies that can be purchased online

online sources

race and ethnicity

Mita Banerjee. "Arab Americans in Literature and the Media." This article contrasts mainstream Hollywood representations of Arab Americans with representations in Arab-produced novels.

Travis Dixon and Daniel Linz. "Overrepresentation and underrepresentation of African Americans and Latinos as lawbreakers on television news." This quantitative research study explores biased representations of ethnic minorities in newsmedia related to crime. 

Free Press. "Out of the Picture: Minority and Female TV Station Ownership in the United States." This report documents the imbalanced media ownership landscape.

Darnel Hunt, et. al. Ralph J. Bunche Center's "2015 Hollywood Diversity Report: Flipping the Script": This report examines relationships between diversity and the bottom line in the Hollywood entertainment industry. It considers the top 200 theatrical film releases in 2012 and 2013 and all broadcast, cable and digital platform television programs from the 2012/13 season.

Young Yun Kim. "Ideology, Identity, and Intercultural Communication: An Analysis of Differing Academic Conceptions of Cultural Identity." This article describes different approaches to understanding cultural identity and inter-ethnic communication in contemporary America.

George Lipsitz. "The Possessive Investment in Whiteness." This historical article describes the ways in which "whiteness" has led to economic privilege in the post-WWII United States.

Lori Lopez. "Fan activists and the politics of race in The Last Airbender." This piece investigates the Asian American fan activists who protested the casting decisions of a major Hollywood production.

Peggy McIntosh, "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack" This well-known piece was written in the late 1980s to explore the often unspoken effects of "white privelege."

Dan Pence and J. Arthur Fields. "Teaching about Race and Ethnicity: Trying to Uncover White Privilege for a White Audience." This article explores strategies and challenges of teaching about race and ethnicity within predominantly white schools.

Stacy Smith et al. "Race/Ethnicity in 600 Popular Films" This report examines o-screen representation, hypersexualization, and employment patterns in popular films from 2007-2010 and 2012-2013.

UCLA Chicano Studies Center. "Looking For Latino Regulars on Prime-Time Television." This report provides an analysis of Latino representation in prime-time television during the first decade of the 2000s.

Qin Zhang. "Perceptions of Asian American Students: Stereotypes and Effects." This research brief outlines the interaction between media portrayals of Asian Americans and common stereotypes.


Jessica Bennet. "Picture Perfect." This journalistic article discusses the common practices of photo retouching in magazines and entertainment media.

Rosalind Gill. "Super Sexualize Me! Advertising and the 'Midriffs'." This article explores the concept of "post-feminism" through an exploration of advertising featuring women's bodies.

bell hooks. "Feminism is for Everybody." This classic text provides an overview of key concepts related to gender and feminism.

Michael Kimmel. Excerpt from "Guyland: The Perilous World Where Boys Become Men." This chapter is an exploration of the social and cultural norms of young, heterosexual, mostly middle-class white men in America.

Michael Messner. "Barbie Girls versus Sea Monsters: Children Constructing Gender." This article investigates how children form views of gender norms through participation in youth sports.

Stacy Smith et al. "Gender Inequality in 600 Popular Films" This annual report outlines on-screen representations and behind-the-scenes employment of women in popular films from 2007-2010 and 2012-2013. 

Julia T. Wood. "Gendered Interaction: Masculine and Feminine Styles of Verbal Communication." This article discusses the role of language and verbal communication in shaping ideas and practices related to gender.

Writers Guild of America. "The 2014 Hollywood Writers Report." This report from the WGA outlines trends in employment for women and minorities in Hollywood.


GLAAD. "Where we are on TV: 2014 Season." This report outlines representations of LGBT characters in mainstream American television.

Larry Gross. "Gideon Who Will be 25 in the Year 2012: Growing Up Gay Today." This article explores the implications of a contemporary media landscape in which LGBT issues have increased visibility compared to previous eras.

Regine Labossiere. "The Fact and Fiction of Being Transgender." This journalistic article discusses issues related to the visibility of transgender individuals in media.

Diane Raymond. "Popular Culture and Queer Representation." This chapter delves deep into queer representations in popular media, describing several common tropes in queer portrayals. 

Katherine Sender. "Sex Sells: Sex, Class and Taste in Commercial Gay and Lesbian Media." This paper analyzes the construction of the "gay media market", focusing on economics, representations, and the implications for the broader public.


danah boyd. "Viewing American class divisions through Facebook and MySpace." This 2007 article reflects on the social class implications of youth participation in different social media platforms.

Richard Butsch. "A half century of class and gender in American TV domestic sitcoms." This article provides an historical analysis of sitcom portrayals of social class, focusing on both change and stability in terms of common representations over time.

Media Education Foundation. "Study Guide for Class Dismissed: How TV Frames the Working Class." A companion to the documentary film, the key points of the guide provide an overview of central issues related to television portrayals and class.

David Newman. "Mass Media and Images of Social Class." This brief article is an excerpt from an online textbook, providing a general overview of trends in media depictions of life among different socio-economic groups.

Pew Research. "Rising Share of Americans See Conflict Between Rich and Poor." This article from the Pew Research Center outlines American public opinion on a variety of topics related to economic inequality.

online blbliographies

Marta Guirao & Benton Jay Komins. "Selected Bibliography of Work in Cultural Studies and US-American Popular Culture." Published by Purdue University, a list of works on cultural studies with a focus on American popular culture since the 1980s.

Indiana University Library. "Cultural Studies Bibliography." An extensive list of foundational texts in cultural studies.

edited print collections

Meenakshi Gigi Durham (Editor) & Douglas M. Kellner (Editor). "Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks." A popular anthology of classic and contemporary writings in media and cultural studies.